effect of climate upon outbreaks of the Southern Pine Beetle by Laurence S. Kalkstein

Cover of: effect of climate upon outbreaks of the Southern Pine Beetle | Laurence S. Kalkstein

Published by C. W. Thornthwaite Associates in Elmer, N.J .

Written in English

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Subjects:

  • Southern pine beetle.,
  • Bark beetles.,
  • Bioclimatology.

Edition Notes

Bibliography: p. 59-65.

Book details

Statementby Laurence S. Kalkstein.
SeriesPublications in climatology ; v. 27, no. 3, Publications in climatology (Laboratory of Climatology (C.W. Thornthwaite Associates)) -- v. 27, no. 3.
The Physical Object
Paginationvi, 65 p. :
Number of Pages65
ID Numbers
Open LibraryOL13584513M

Download effect of climate upon outbreaks of the Southern Pine Beetle

Get this from a library. The effect of climate upon outbreaks of the southern Pine Beetle. [Laurence S Kalkstein]. For example, outbreak populations of southern pine beetle are now persistent in New Jersey (21), and mountain pine beetle outbreaks in high elevation forests are continuing at paces not seen over the past century (22).

Increasing minimum temperatures is one factor attributed to northward range expansion of the mountain pine beetle in Canada. In times of drought, beetle populations can spike, spreading to healthy pine trees. Historically, cold winters kept beetle populations under control.

A new study published in the journal Nature highlights how climate change is promoting pine beetle outbreaksâand how the outbreaks are contributing to climate change.

In times of drought, beetle populations can spike, spreading to healthy pine trees. Historically, cold winters kept beetle populations under control. A new study published in the journal Nature highlights how climate change is promoting pine beetle outbreaks—and how the outbreaks are contributing to climate change.

The current pine beetle epidemic may have been facilitated by global warming, but research involving UNBC professor Art Fredeen is now exploring whether beetle activity is now creating additional warming.

Researchers have long-suspected that the rapid growth in the population of the mountain pine beetle has been caused by climate change. Projected outbreak areas for southern pine beetle increased with higher temperatures and generally shifted northward, as did the distributions of the southern pine forests.

Projected outbreak areas for mountain pine beetle decreased with. A study finds strong links between climate change and the spread of southern pine beetles, whose damage increases the risk of ecosystem harm and forest fires.

By Bob Berwyn, InsideClimate News Aug. Global climate change induced by doubling atmospheric CO 2 concentration would intensify SPB infestation risk by –5 times. If the changes in the area and productivity of southern pine forests due to climate change are accounted for, SPB would cause even more severe damage, 4– times higher than the current value of trees killed annually.

Distribution of mountain pine beetle outbreaks in British Columbia during by biogeoclimatic zone and forest type. Distribution of mountain pine beetle outbreaks in British Columbia. Small Pests, Big Problems: The Global Spread of Bark Beetles. Warming temperatures are fueling the expansion of pine and spruce beetle outbreaks across North America, Europe, and Siberia, ravaging tens of thousands of square miles of woodlands.

Scientists warn that some forest ecosystems may never recover. Both the wildfires and the beetle outbreak can be considered effects of climate change — a subject that will be the focus of a major speech by President Barack Obama on Tuesday. Related to general climate warming, average winter temperatures in the Rocky Mountains have been higher than normal over the past ten years.

Trees have also been weakened by a prolonged period of low precipitation. The combination of milder temperatures and low precipitation has aided a vast outbreak of beetles.

Global climate change induced by doubling atmospheric CO2 concentration would intensify SPB infestation risk by –5 times.

If the changes in the area and productivity of southern pine forests due to climate change are accounted for, SPB would cause even more severe damage, 4– times higher than the current value of trees killed annually. 4 Projected outbreak areas for southern pine beetle increased with higher temperatures and generally shifted northward, as did the distributions of the southern pine forests.

5 Projected outbreak areas for mountain pine beetle decreased with increasing temperature and shifted toward higher elevation. That trend was mirrored in. The recent loss of entire stands of long-lived, high-elevation whitebark pine, Pinus albicaulis Engelm., as a result of the mountain pine beetle underscores the need for greater understanding of climate change effects on complex interactions important to ecosystem resiliency and stability.

Characterizing thresholds for systems beyond which changes are irreversible will be an important component of forest management in a changing climate.

1. Introduction. The southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann) is an important pest of pine forests in the southeastern United States (Thatcher et al., ).The beetle is primarily successful in loblolly (Pinus taeda) and shortleaf (Pinus echinata) pine species, although it can reproduce successfully in other pine species.A local outbreak of beetles will start in a single or a.

Models to project bark beetle ranges employed changed forest distributions as well as changes in climatic variables. 4- Projected outbreak areas for southern pine beetle increased with higher temperatures and generally shifted northward, as did the distributions of the southern pine forests.

5- Projected outbreak areas for mountain pine beetle decreased with increasing temperature and. Mountain pine beetle is also a major cause of mortality in lodgepole pine.

For a mountain pine beetle outbreak to develop, two requirements must be satisfied. First, there must be a sustained period of favourable weather over several years (Safranyik ). Factors including summer heat accumulation. after the outbreak) and spatially (across sites that varied in severity of outbreak) in relation to beetle outbreaks.

Outbreaks ranged in size f to ha and studies occurred 1–30 years after the peak MPB outbreak, but most studies were conducted over the short-term (i.e., 6 years after the peak of MPB-induced tree mortality). Outbreak drivers Climate. The potential for bark beetle outbreaks to affect communities and management paradigms in regions that historically have not experienced severe beetle outbreaks is perhaps an eventual outcome of climate warming during the 21st century.

Socioecological Impacts of the Western Pine Beetle Outbreak in Southern. The southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis, SPB) is the major insect pest of pine species in the southeastern United States.

It attains outbreak population levels sufficient to mass attack host pines across the landscape at scales ranging from a single forest stand to interstate epidemics.

Whereas other studies have found varying roles of temperature and precipitation in southern pine beetle outbreaks (KalksteinKroll and ReevesMichaelsGumpertz et al.

), Turchin et al. () rejected a significant role of climate in east Texas after examining the correlation between local climate records and dynamics in. One effect the study detected is the likelihood, in a warming climate, of a substantial increase in areas of spruce forest dominated by spruce beetles that.

Pine beetles may affect climate change. “Here we estimate that the cumulative impact of the beetle outbreak in the affected region during. Mountain pine beetles that are destroying forests along much of the Rocky Mountain range are doing so much damage that they may affect climate change, Canadian researchers reported on Wednesday.

New knowledge for managing tree-killing bark beetles Date: Ma Source: Dartmouth College Summary: Outbreaks of the southern pine beetle can't be stopped by its main predator, but risks.

Temperature increases caused by climate change were a major factor driving the outbreak of mountain pine beetles that killed whitebark pine trees across millions of acres in and around Yellowstone National Park in the early s, according to a new study by University of Idaho researchers and their partners.

The study is the first to pinpoint the multiple climate factors behind. models, and (3} to arrive at a means of predicting future outbreaks of the southern pine beetle through the analysis of existing data. Two climatological models were employed to determine if a statistical relationship exists between southern pine beetle outbreaks and selected climatic parameters.

The White stress index, which has. elevations and identify regions with a high potential for bark beetle outbreaks and associated tree mortality in the coming century. Keywords: cold tolerance, mountain pine beetle, seasonality, spruce beetle, temperature climate change components (Dale et al.

Although there are many possible avenues for atmospheric changes to influ. We evaluated the interactive effects of pine and hardwood basal areas on stand susceptibility to southern pine beetle during 2 yr. Low and high pine basal areas (12 vs. 25 m²/ha, respectively. In addition, Spruce beetle populations have also been growing in the area in recent years and are further contributing to the existing outbreak.

One of the main factors limiting bark beetle population growth is the temperature they can survive at and climate change has raised the average temperature in the region resulting in warmer winters and hotter, drier summers. Mountain pine beetle (MPB) is an insect native to the forests of western North America and is also known as the Black Hills beetle or the Rocky Mountain pine beetle.

MPB primarily develop in pines such as lodgepole, ponderosa, Scotch and limber pines, and less commonly affect. The current mountain pine beetle outbreak in western Canada encompasses its historic range, but is now also prevalent in areas where outbreak populations have not been previously recorded (Taylor et al.

) because of an unsuitable climate (Carroll et al. The southern pine beetle (SPB) is a major disturbance in pine forests throughout the range of southern yellow pines, and is a significant influence on forests throughout several Central Hardwood Region (CHR) ecoregions.

At endemic levels, SPB colonizes individual stressed or lightning-struck trees, acting as a natural thinning agent. The beetle occurs from Pennsylvania to Texas and from New Mexico and Arizona to Honduras (fig.

Periodic outbreaks commonly recur in fairly well-defined areas. During one outbreak in the Southern States inthe southern pine beetle killed the equivalent of about billion board feet of pine. Across western North America, abundant susceptible pine hosts and a suitable climate during the early 21st century have promoted widespread mountain pine beetle (MPB) outbreaks, leading to concern that dead fuels may increase wildfire risk.

The assumption that outbreaks raise fire risk is driving far-reaching policy decisions involving expenditures of hundreds of millions of dollars.

tain pine beetle outbreaks in western Canada from to Second, we study the spatial outbreak patterns of the beetle under a combination of four simulated climate change and two climatic variability scenarios using adapted terms from the model and the peak year of the current out-break,as a case study.

Our approach aims to provide. Relative importance of climate and mountain pine beetle outbreaks on the occurrence of large wildfires in the western USA.

Nathan Mietkiewicz. Corresponding Author. E-mail address: [email protected] Graduate School of Geography, Clark University, Main Street, Worcester, Massachusetts, USA. Description. Mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) is a major disturbance in conifer forests of western North America, where it colonizes several tree species, perhaps most notably lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta).Recent outbreaks have been severe, long lasting, and well documented, with more than 27 million ha impacted (British Columbia Ministry of ForestsUSDA Forest Service ).

Climate change affects populations of forest insect pests in a number of ways. We reviewed the most recent literature (–) on this subject including previous reviews on the topic. We provide a comprehensive discussion of the subject, with special attention to insect range expansion, insect abundance, impacts on forest ecosystems, and effects on forest insect communities.

The mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) is a species of bark beetle native to the forests of western North America from Mexico to central British has a hard black exoskeleton, and measures approximately 5 millimetres (1 ⁄ 4 in), about the size of a grain of western North America, the current outbreak of the mountain pine beetle and its microbial associates has.

The northern range limit of mountain pine beetle currently is limited by climate, not host availability (i.e., lodgepole pine exists well north of the beetle range limit) [Carroll et al., ].

Recent warming has been implicated as responsible for the dramatic expansion in outbreak area in British Columbia, with continued northward migration.Quick Facts, Southern Pine Beetle Biology and Control John L. Foltz, Forest Entomologist University of Florida, Dept of Entomology and Nematology.

The southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis, is the most studied of the southern forest insects. Below, in outline form, are some essential facts gleaned from numerous articles and survey reports.

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